Fat loss and weight loss - an overview

In modern medical research and nutritional science, the topic of fat loss and weight reduction is intensively studied. The complexity of the human metabolism and the role of fat cells in the energy balance are central aspects of this research field. This article aims to shed light on the process of fat loss from a scientific perspective and present evidence-based insights into weight loss.

1. Biochemical basis of fat loss

Fat cells, scientifically called adipocytes, are specialized cells that store triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters made up of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules. If there is a calorie surplus, these are stored in the adipocytes. In a calorie deficit, the process of lipolysis breaks down fat into glycerol and free fatty acids, which then serve as a source of energy.

2. Physiology of lipid metabolism

The human body regulates lipid metabolism through various hormones, including insulin, glucagon and adrenaline. Insulin promotes fat storage, while glucagon and adrenaline stimulate fat breakdown. The location and rate of fat loss can be influenced by genetic factors, hormone levels, and physical activity.

3. Nutritional Aspects of Fat Loss

Diet plays a crucial role in the fat loss process. Current research suggests that not only total calorie intake but also the type of macronutrients consumed can affect fat loss.

Proteins: Eating more protein can boost metabolism and reduce appetite. Studies have shown that a high-protein diet can promote fat loss.

Carbohydrates: The type and amount of carbohydrates consumed can affect insulin levels and thus fat metabolism. Complex carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are preferable.

Fats: Not all fats are the same. While saturated fats should be consumed in moderation, unsaturated fats, especially omega-3 fatty acids, can offer health benefits.

4. Training physiological aspects of fat loss

Physical activity is a key factor in fat loss. While aerobic exercise, like running or swimming, burns calories and promotes fat loss, anaerobic exercise, like strength training, can increase muscle mass, thereby increasing basal metabolic rate.

5. Myths and scientific clarifications

Science has debunked many popular myths about fat loss and weight loss. For example, research has shown that eating small meals throughout the day does not significantly increase metabolism, contrary to popular belief.

6. Recommendations for evidence-based weight loss

Interdisciplinary Approach: Effective weight loss requires a holistic approach that includes nutrition, exercise, and psychological aspects.

Continuous Monitoring: Regular checks of weight, body fat percentage, and other health indicators can help monitor progress and adjust strategy.

Scientific Literature: It is important to rely on current scientific evidence and not on popular diet trends or unverified claims.

Weight Loss With Sports Nutrition: A Guide

In modern nutritional science and sports medicine, the topic of "losing weight with sports nutrition" is becoming increasingly important. Sports nutrition, originally developed to help athletes improve performance, has proven to be an effective tool for weight loss and body composition optimization. This article provides an evidence-based overview of the role of sports nutrition in the context of weight loss.

Definition and classification of sports nutrition

Sports nutrition encompasses a wide range of products designed to enhance athletic performance, accelerate recovery and optimize body composition. They can come in the form of powders, capsules, bars, or drinks, and often contain a combination of macro and micronutrients, amino acids, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds.

Mechanisms: How exercise nutrition affects weight loss

Sports nutrition can affect weight loss in several ways:

  • Metabolism Increase: Some ingredients may increase basal metabolism, resulting in increased calorie expenditure.
  • Appetite Suppression: Certain compounds can promote satiety and reduce appetite.
  • Promote Fat Oxidation: Some products may increase fat burning during exercise.

Main components of sports nutrition and their role in weight loss

  • Protein: Proteins are essential for muscle growth and repair. Eating more protein can boost metabolism and reduce appetite. Whey protein and casein are common ingredients in sports nutrition supplements.
  • Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs): These amino acids can promote muscle protein synthesis and reduce muscle breakdown during exercise.
  • Caffeine: A well-known metabolism booster that can increase fat burning and improve exercise performance.
  • Green Tea Extract: Contains antioxidants and can increase metabolism and promote fat burning.


application and dosage

Proper dosage and application of sports nutrition is critical to its effectiveness. It is important to follow the manufacturer's recommendations and assess tolerance individually. Overdosing can lead to unwanted side effects.

Potential risks and side effects

As with all supplements, there are potential risks with sports nutrition. Excessive consumption can lead to digestive problems, sleep disorders or cardiovascular problems. It is important to consult a doctor or nutritionist before taking it.

Recommendations for effective use

Combination with regular training: Sports nutrition should always be used in combination with a structured training program.

Customization: Not every product is suitable for everyone. It is important to choose products that suit individual needs and goals.

Consultation of experts: Before taking sports nutrition, a professional should always be consulted.

Conclusions and future research directions

Sports nutrition offers promising potential in the context of weight loss. While many positive effects have already been demonstrated, more research is needed to determine the long-term effects and optimal application strategies.

final word

Fat loss and weight loss are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a variety of factors. An evidence-based approach based on current scientific knowledge is the key to successful and sustainable weight loss.

ANY RESTRICTED CALORIE DIET - provided the amount of calories consumed is less than what is actually consumed
amount of calories consumed - leads to weight loss. However, only as long as the diet
is maintained. Losing weight can be caused by water loss, loss of muscle mass and loss of fat.
The aim is to reduce body fat in particular and to preserve muscle mass as much as possible. The disadvantage of radical calorie reductions ("crash diets") is that such diets are only seen as a short phase, after which you return to normal, i.e. mostly wrong, eating habits. A long-term learning effect or a change in diet takes place not.
Of course, the calorie consumption through sport should also be increased to support the success of a diet. However, diet plays a far more important role in weight loss than exercise.

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The most important goals during weight loss are to reduce body fat while maintaining it
muscle substance. The muscles are the largest organ in our body when it comes to burning large amounts of fat. The more muscle mass we have, the more fat we can burn (fat burning)!
This is one of the reasons why men often find it easier to lose weight than women because they
naturally have greater muscle mass. Rapid weight loss is possible with most diets, but leads to a reduction in muscle mass. If our body is supplied with too few calories and, above all, too little protein, the body first breaks down muscles in order to generate energy before it burns fat. With a diet, muscle mass is always lost in addition to fat mass. With simple calorie reduction, around 700 g of fat and 300 g of muscle mass are lost for every kilogram of body mass. With decreasing muscle mass, however, the basal energy consumption also decreases and the body burns fewer calories. Then, if you want to keep losing weight, with every pound you lose, you have to cut back on your calorie intake to further reduce the weight. If you then eat "normally" again, i.e. the calorie intake is increased, fewer calories are burned and instead more calories are stored in the form of fat. The weight regains more quickly, and you often weigh more than before the diet (yo-yo effect ).

This yo-yo effect can be counteracted by a moderate reduction in calorie intake with a higher percentage of protein and simultaneous strength training in connection with endurance training to build muscle.
All energy-yielding nutrients (fat, carbohydrates and protein) supply energy, but only protein can
at the same time help to build and maintain muscle mass. Protein also plays an important role in our body for a strong immune system, formation of hormones and enzymes. During the calorie-reduced phase, a high protein intake helps to maintain muscle mass and also enables the building of new muscle mass. This is called protein-modified fasting. With conventional crash diets or "low-fat" diets, body weight drops quickly, but a lot of muscle substance is broken down, resulting in the yo-yo effect.


In one study (1) a high-protein and a high-carbohydrate weight-reduction diet were compared with one another in terms of weight loss. The participants consisted of 65 healthy, overweight adults between the ages of 18 and 55. For a period of six months, the subjects with their different nutritional combinations were compared with regard to their diet success (-> Figure 1).

In a study published in 2003 (2), e.g. described that the saturation effect of a protein-rich diet is higher and the diet is endured better as a result. In this study it could be shown that the Blood sugar levels remained more stable due to the lower rise in insulin with a protein-rich diet.


Endurance training has long been mistakenly thought to be the best way to lose body fat. In the meantime, the many years of knowledge and experience regarding strength training and body fat reduction from bodybuilding are used to reduce weight. A study published in 1999 examined the impact of resistance training and endurance training while dieting on weight loss and body fat breakdown in 60 overweight men and women (4):

Group A received only a diet (daily calorie deficit: 1,000 kcal).
Group B received a diet and did endurance training (daily calorie deficit also 1,000 kcal, plus 60 minutes of aerobic training five times a week).
Group C only received a diet and did strength training (daily calorie deficit also 1,000 kcal, plus 30 minutes of weight training three times a week).

After four months of the study, all subjects with a daily calorie deficit of 1,000 kcal lost an average of 12 kg body weight per day over the study period. Endurance training alone can only slightly increase fat loss on a calorie-reduced diet compared to calorie reduction without exercise. In practice, a combination of strength training, sober endurance training and diet has proven to be the best. This combination seems to have the greatest effect on body fat loss. Women should therefore do more strength training to build muscle.
Strength training is viewed by many women as a purely male affair. Many women therefore reject it
Discontinue strength training for fear of gaining enormous muscle mass and losing their femininity. However, this is not to be feared, since women can build less muscle than men due to hormones and therefore no enormous and unfeminine muscle growth is possible.


Due to the high intensity of the strength training, the organism is forced to build up muscle mass and therefore uses the fat reserves as a source of energy for regeneration. In the resting phase, an afterburn effect occurs after strength training, since more muscles need and burn more calories even at rest. However, during strength training, the load is so intense that the muscle gets its energy primarily from carbohydrates and only a little fat is burned.


Fat burning is best increased with a morning endurance workout on an empty stomach. The reason for this is the low insulin level in the morning. The lower the insulin level, the higher it is
fat burning However, there is a risk that muscle mass will also be burned. To protect the
Eating carbohydrates for muscles would be counterproductive, as this would increase insulin levels and
Fat burning would be restricted. The consumption of 30 g of whey protein before a morning workout on an empty stomach has proven to be very effective in practice, since the breakdown of muscle mass is reduced and fat burning is not restricted, but can run at full speed.


In nature, animal protein is always found together with L-carnitine, and with good reason. have studies
showed that a simultaneous administration of protein and L-carnitine makes sense. Today, however, L-carnitine-free protein products based on soy are often used. It is therefore advisable to either enrich protein-rich diet products with L-carnitine or to consume them at the same time as an L-carnitine supplement in order to improve the utilization of the amino acids.


If you want or need to lose weight, the best way to do it naturally is through a sensible change in diet and an exercise program. Normally, no additional preparations are required. However, certain products may have additional health benefits when added to a calorie restricted diet. They can support and reinforce the implementation or success of a diet. On the other hand, preparations that promise to reduce body weight by taking substances alone are extremely dubious and mostly completely ineffective, sometimes even dangerous to health.

In summary, a high-protein diet, with or without supplemental L-carnitine, is a weight reduction useful support.


  • preservation of muscle mass
  • Greater weight loss
  • Greater breakdown of fat deposits
  • Better satiety, less hunger pangs